According to Pliny, Alexander the Great offered his mistress, Campaspe, as the model for the nude Venus and later, realizing that Apelles had fallen in love with the girl, gave her to the artist in a gesture of extreme magnanimity. Das Bild befindet sich in den Uffizien in Florenz. The "House of Venus" in Pompeii has a life-size fresco of Venus lying in the shell, also seen in other works; in most other images she stands with her hands on her hair, wringing the water from it, with or without a shell. Accordingly, by overt implication, Lorenzo becomes the new Alexander the Great with an implied link to both Augustus, the first Roman emperor, and even to Florence's legendary founder, Caesar himself. Both have wings. The painting is in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy. Once again, Botticelli, in his version of the Birth of Venus, might be seen as completing the task begun by his ancient predecessor Apelles, even surpassing him. Although it now seems that the painting was executed for another member of the Medici family, it likely was intended to celebrate and flatter its head, Lorenzo de' Medici. [25], Although there are ancient and modern texts that are relevant, no single text provides the precise imagery of the painting, which has led scholars to propose many sources and interpretations. He is in the air, and carries a young female, who is also blowing, but less forcefully. In a similar way, the scene shows here marks the start of Venus's ministry of love, whether in a simple sense, or the expanded meaning of Renaissance Neoplatonism. There are differences to Botticelli's usual technique, working on panel supports, such as the lack of a green first layer under the flesh areas. Botticelli represented the Neoplatonic idea of divine love in the form of a nude Venus.[28]. Like Botticelli’s other masterpiece, Pallas and the Centaur, the Birth of Venus is painted on canvas - fairly unusual for its time - using a technique of thin tempera, based on the use of diluted egg yolk, which lends itself particularly well to give the painting that aspect of extraordinary transparency, which brings to … The main European species eaten are. Cette image a été retouchée, ce qui signifie qu'elle a été modifiée par ordinateur et est différente de l'image d'origine.Liste des modifications : This image derives from an image which also appears on this page.In this version intensity of the colouration has been lowered overall from the reproduction from which it was derived. Most art historians agree, however, that the Birth does not require complex analysis to decode its meaning, in the way that the Primavera probably does. El a pint'e para riba un cocolishi, pasobra ta bisa cu Venus a nace na lama. Mack sees the scene as inspired by both the Homeric Hymn and the ancient paintings. Legouix, 21 argues for the traditional one for the female held by Zephyr. Pliny also noted a second painting by Apelles of Venus "superior even to his earlier one," that had been begun by the artist but left unfinished. Kevät eli La Primavera on italialaisen renessanssimaalarin Sandro Botticellin maalaus noin vuodelta 1478. The painting is in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy. But the figure of the girl is uncertain: she could be Spring, a subject dear to Botticelli, because her dress is full of flowers, or the personification of motherhood, or one of the Three Graces. – 1510. május 17.) This life-sized work depicts a similar figure and pose, partially clad in a light blouse, and contrasted against a plain dark background. The most famous: the Spring commissioned by Lorenzo de Medici and the Birth of Venus, commissioned by Pierfrancesco de Medici. In the case of Botticelli's Birth of Venus, the suggested references to Lorenzo, supported by other internal indicators such as the stand of laurel bushes at the right, would have been just the sort of thing erudite Florentine humanists would have appreciated. First, it is a representation of a nude woman: this kind of subject was restricted during the Medieval ages - the only exception was an image of Eve in the Garden of Eden. In later years hostility between the two branches of the family became overt. Kenneth Clark wrote: "Her differences from antique form are not physiological, but rhythmic and structural. The Birth of Venus (Italian: Nascita di Venere [ˈnaʃʃita di ˈvɛːnere]) is a painting by the Italian artist Sandro Botticelli, probably made in the mid 1480s.It depicts the goddess Venus arriving at the shore after her birth, when she had emerged from the sea fully-grown (called Venus Anadyomene and often depicted in art). We have to remember that the painting today is not as glorious it was initially. Sandro Botticelli (1445–1510) Alternative navne: Birth name: Allessandro Filipepi Sandro Filipepi Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi Botticelli: Beskrivelse: kunstmaler og kunstner: Fødsels- og dødsdato: 1. marts 1445 17. maj 1510 / 16. maj 1510 Fødsels- og dødssted: Firenze: Firenze: Arbejdssted 1486 af den italienske maler Sandro Botticelli.Billedet er også kendt under navnet Den skumfødte Venus.. Maleriet er inspireret af den græsk-romerske myte om Venus' fødsel. Add a photo to this gallery [19] The clumps of bulrushes in the left foreground are out of place here, as they come from a freshwater species.[20]. For some years until 1919 they were kept in the Galleria dell'Accademia, another government museum in Florence. The subject is not strictly the "Birth of Venus", a title given to the painting only in the nineteenth century (though given as the subject by Vasari), but the next scene in her story, where she arrives on land, blown by the wind. Thought to be based in part on the Venus de' Medici, an ancient Greek marble sculpture of Aphrodite. Venus is standing in the centre of the picture on a seashell floating in the water: according to classical mythology, she sprang from the foaming waters of the sea. Their joint efforts are blowing Venus towards the shore, and blowing the hair and clothes of the other figures to the right. The proportions and poses of the winds to the left do not quite make sense, and none of the figures cast shadows. The composition of the painting is quite simple: in the center, there’s a figure of Venus, goddess of love, standing in a shell being washed up on a beach, blown there by two personifications of winds visible on the left, and welcomed by a maiden on the right. This is a part of the Wikipedia article used under the Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). "[15], Venus' body is anatomically improbable, with elongated neck and torso. (1477-1485) (1477-1485) Botticelli- The Spring Botticelli's posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century, when he was rediscovered by the Pre-Raphaelites who stimulated a reappraisal of his work. [22], Horne dated the work at some point after the purchase of the villa in 1477 and before Botticelli's departure for Rome to join the painting of the Sistine Chapel in 1481. Recent scholars prefer a date of around 1484–86 on grounds of the work's place in the development of Botticelli's style. This was the year after their father died at the age of 46, leaving the young boys wards of their cousin Lorenzo il Magnifico, of the senior branch of the Medici family and de facto ruler of Florence. Here one hand is raised, pointing to heaven for justification, and the figure's gaze also looks upwards; the whole effect is very different. James Hankins, "The Myth of the Platonic Academy of Florence,", More clearly in the Latin Florentia ("flowering") than in the Italian Firenze. Botticielli produced the image of a beautiful naked woman, with a gaze that is remarkably in direct engagement with the viewer. It depicts the goddess Venus arriving at the shore after her birth, when she had emerged from the sea fully-grown (called Venus Anadyomene and often depicted in art). This layered approach—mythological, political, religious—was intended. Giving added support to this interpretation of Botticelli as a born-again Apelles is the fact that that very claim was voiced in 1488 by Ugolino Verino in a poem entitled "On Giving Praise to the History of Florence."[44]. Botticelli could not have seen the frescos unearthed later in Pompeii, but may well have seen small versions of the motif in terracotta or engraved gems. [35] Older writers, following Horne, posited that "his patron Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco asked him to paint a subject illustrating the lines",[36] and that remains a possibility, though one difficult to maintain so confidently today. The real subject of the painting and its meaning is a mystery under discussion. Her shoulders, for example, instead of forming a sort of architrave to her torso, as in the antique nude, run down into her arms in the same unbroken stream of movement as her floating hair. Parts of some leaves at the top right corner, normally covered by the frame, have been less affected. The Roman images in various media showing the new-born Venus in a giant shell may well be crude derivative versions of these paintings. [18], Botticelli's art was never fully committed to naturalism; in comparison to his contemporary Domenico Ghirlandaio, Botticelli seldom gave weight and volume to his figures and rarely used a deep perspectival space. Most art historians agree, however, that the Birth does not require complex analysis to decode its meaning, in the way that the Primavera probably does. [39], The painter and the humanist scholars who probably advised him would have recalled that Pliny the Elder had mentioned a lost masterpiece of the celebrated ancient Greek painter, Apelles, representing Venus Anadyomene (Venus Rising from the Sea). He is best known for The Birth of Venus, painted c. 1482-1486. In this case the scallop shell upon which this image of Venus/Eve/Madonna/Church stands may be seen in its traditionally symbolic pilgrimage context. Sandro Botticelli, eredeti nevén Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (Firenze, 1445. március 1. Nașterea lui Venus (Afrodita) (în italiană: Nascita di Venere [ˈnaʃʃita di ˈvɛːnere]) este o pictură realizată de Sandro Botticelli în anul 1484, aflată la Galeria Uffizi, Florența.Este o reprezentare a zeiței Venus, născută din spuma mării, ca femeie matură (numită Venus Anadyomene).. Ca model i-a servit și în această pictură frumoasa italiană Simonetta Vespucci. This hypothesis would seem to be born out by the orange trees in the painting, which are considered an emblem of the Medici dynasty, on account of the assonance between the family name and the name of the orange tree, which at the time was ‘mala medica’. It used to be thought that they were both commissioned by the same member of the Medici family, but this is now uncertain. [9], The painting is large, but slightly smaller than the Primavera, and where that is a panel painting, this is on the cheaper support of canvas. Unfortunately, we do not know for sure which Medici it was painted for, or which location it was originally hung in. Dempsey uses these identifications. The painting is in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy. E pintura ta ilustra cu Zephyr, dios di biento, ta supl'e na canto di tera unda un otro dios ta wardando e cu un mantel. Pliny went on to note that Apelles' painting of Pankaspe as Venus was later "dedicated by Augustus in the shrine of his father Caesar." El nacimiento de Venus (en italiano, La Nascita di Venere) es un cuadro realizado por el pintor renacentista Sandro Botticelli, una de las obras cumbre del maestro florentino y del Quattrocento italiano.Está ejecutado al temple sobre lienzo y mide 278,5 cm de ancho por 172,5 cm de alto. The Birth of Venus has been spoofed by the Muppets several times, most often with Miss Piggy in the title role. It is also a commercial icon and a line mark of European Art.The real subject of the painting and its meaning is a mystery under discussion. Simonetta was possibly born in the Ligurian seaside town of Portovenere ('the port of Venus'). In the centre the newly-born goddess Venus stands nude in a giant scallop shell. Their bodies, by an endless intricacy of embrace, sustain the current of movement, which finally flickers down their legs and is dispersed like an electric charge. In later life, he was one of Savonarola's followers. But not only the classical world was the source of Botticelli's work. [24], Whenever the two paintings were united at Castello, they have remained together ever since. Nacimento di Venus di Botticelli, (Nascita di Venere na Italiano) pinta pa Sandro Botticelli ta un pintura cu ta representa un dios Romano cu yama 'Venus'. ... the suspension of our reason is achieved by the intricate rhythms of the drapery which sweep and flow irresistibly around the nude figures. De Geboorte van Venus is een schilderij van de Italiaanse kunstschilder Sandro Botticelli.Het hangt in de Uffizi-galerij in de Italiaanse stad Florence.. Het schilderij is vervaardigd met tempera op canvas en meet 172,5 cm bij 278,5 cm. Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), known as Sandro Botticelli (/ˌboʊtiˈtʃɛli/, Italian: [ˈsandro bottiˈtʃɛlli]), was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. The iconography of The Birth of Venus is similar to a description of a relief of the event in Poliziano's poem the Stanze per la giostra, commemorating a Medici joust in 1475, which may also have influenced Botticelli, although there are many differences. Her whole body follows the curve of a Gothic ivory. There is heavy use of gold as a pigment for highlights, on hair, wings, textiles, the shell and the landscape. There is a contrast between the title of the work and what it represents: we do not see the moment of Venus’ birth. Pliny also stated that "the lower part of the painting was damaged, and it was impossible to find anyone who could restore it. Over the centuries, many theories and interpretations have been developed, proving the complexity of this work of art. The Birth of Venus was at the Medici villa of Castello. For alternative betydninger, se Venus' fødsel. Botticelli made consistent use of the circular tondo form and did many beautiful female nudes, according to Vasari. There may be a deliberate ambiguity as to which Lorenzo was intended to be evoked. In the same way the flowers in the air around Zephyr and on the textiles worn and carried by the Hora evoke the name of Florence.[33]. In particular, both Primavera and Birth of Venus have been seen as wedding paintings that suggest appropriate behaviors for brides and grooms. Botticelli obviously read classical texts before painting it: for example, the Roman writer Plinio made the description of the painting by the Greek artist Apelles that showed Venus rising from the sea or a Homeric hymn that told about Zephyrus that blows his wind on Aphrodite. This article is within the scope of WikiProject Italy, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of articles on Italy on Wikipedia. The Hora originally had "low classical sandals", and the collar on the mantle she holds out is an afterthought. The floral decoration of her dress suggests she is the Hora of Spring.[6]. Het beeldt de godin Venus uit die oprijst uit de zee als een volgroeide vrouw, zoals deze beschreven wordt in de Griekse mythologie. Slika je v galeriji Uffizi v [[FirenceFirencah v Italiji. At the start of the 16th century, the painting hung together with Primavera in the country villa of the Medici in Castello. Canvas was increasing in popularity, perhaps especially for secular paintings for country villas, which were decorated more simply, cheaply and cheerfully than those for city palazzi, being designed for pleasure more than ostentatious entertainment. Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi hay là Sandro Botticelli hoặc Il Botticello hoặc ngắn gọn là Botticelli, sinh năm 1445 mất ngày 17 tháng 5 năm 1510, là một họa sĩ người Ý và nhà đồ họa in ấn của những năm đầu thời kỳ Phục hưng. Although the two are not a pair, the painting is inevitably discussed with Botticelli's other very large mythological painting, the Primavera, also in the Uffizi. [16] Botticelli never painted landscape backgrounds with great detail or realism, but this is especially the case here. Sandro Botticelli (1445–1510) Alternative names: Birth name: Allessandro Filipepi Sandro Filipepi Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi Botticelli: Descrive: Italian pintor e artiste: Date of birth/death: 1 marto 1445 / 1445 17 maio 1510 / 16 maio 1510 Location of birth/death: Firenze: Firenze: Work location The land probably represents either Cythera or Cyprus, both Mediterranean islands regarded by the Greeks as territories of Venus. (Se også artikler, som begynder med Venus' fødsel)Venus' fødsel (på italiensk: Nascita di Venere) er et temperamaleri, som blev malet i ca. What became a famous example of this type is the Venus de' Medici, a marble sculpture that was in a Medici collection in Rome by 1559, which Botticelli may have had opportunity to study (the date it was found is unclear). [30], More recently, questions have arisen about Neoplatonism as the dominant intellectual system of late 15th-century Florence,[31] and scholars have indicated that there might be other ways to interpret Botticelli's mythological paintings. [37], Having a large standing female nude as the central focus was unprecedented in post-classical Western painting, and certainly drew on the classical sculptures which were coming to light in this period, especially in Rome, where Botticelli had spent 1481–82 working on the walls of the Sistine Chapel. The seashell she stands on was a symbol in classical antiquity for a woman's vulva. The laurel trees and the grass below them are green with gold highlights, most of the waves regular patterns, and the landscape seems out of scale with the figures. The Birth of Venus (Italian: Nascita di Venere [ˈnaʃʃita di ˈvɛːnere]) is a painting by Sandro Botticelli probably made in the mid 1480s. The Birth of Venus, painted by Sandro Botticelli in the 1480s, is one of the most famous paintings in the world: it is a celebrated work of art and the high point of a visit to the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.It is also a commercial icon and a line mark of European Art. Next, there is the news of the mythological theme that in the 1480s was absolutely a new type of painting. However, the roses blown along with the two flying figures would be appropriate for Chloris. Die Venus ist ein Tafelbild auf Leinwand des italienischen Künstlers Sandro Botticelli (1445–1510), das um 1490 entstanden ist.. Botticelli war ein italienischer Künstler der Frühen Neuzeit und sein bekanntes Werk Die Geburt der Venus zeigt eine weitere Venus-Darstellung, die den Betrachtenden durch die Ästhetik und die idealisierten Züge der Venus pudica festhält. Lorenzo, furthermore, is not only magnificent but, as was Alexander in Pliny's story, also magnanimous, as well. There are a number of pentimenti revealed by modern scientific testing. [13] The blues of the sea and sky have also lost their brightness. Sandro was intensely religious. Ultimately, these readings of the Birth of Venus flatter not only the Medici and Botticelli but all of Florence, home to the worthy successors to some of the greatest figures of antiquity, both in governance and in the arts. Since then, his paintings have been seen to represent the linear grace of Early Renaissance painting. Bellingham, David, "Aphrodite deconstructed: Botticelli's "Venus and Mars" in the National Gallery, London", in Brill's Companion to Aphrodite, Eds Amy C. Smith, Sadie Pickup, 2010, BRILL, ISBN 9047444507, 9789047444503, google books Once draped in earthly garments she becomes a personification of the Christian Church which offers a spiritual transport back to the pure love of eternal salvation. Scallops were familiar Italian seafood, but their shells are never more than a few inches wide. Venus and Mars (or Mars and Venus) is a panel painting of about 1485 by the Italian Renaissance painter Sandro Botticelli. But in 1975 it emerged that, unlike the Primavera, the Birth is not in the inventory, apparently complete, made in 1499 of the works of art belonging to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco's branch of the family. [47], Botticelli, or more likely his workshop, repeated the figure of Venus in another painting of about 1490. While there are subtleties in the painting, its main meaning is a straightforward, if individual, treatment of a traditional scene from Greek mythology, and its appeal is sensory and very accessible, hence its enormous popularity. The Primavera is now usually dated earlier, after Botticelli's return from Rome in 1482 and perhaps around the time of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco's wedding in July 1482,[23] but by some still before Botticelli's departure. Vasari was probably correct in identifying her as "Aura", personification of a lighter breeze. [21] There is no record of the original commission, and the painting is first mentioned by Vasari, who saw it, together with the Primavera, at Castello, some time before the first edition of his Lives in 1550, probably by 1530–40. In 1550 Vasari was himself painting in the villa, but he very possibly visited it before that. Viewed from a religious standpoint, the nudity of Venus suggests that of Eve before the Fall as well as the pure love of Paradise. [51], For classical examples, see below. [38] The pose of Botticelli's Venus follows the Venus Pudica ("Venus of Modesty") type from classical antiquity, where the hands are held to cover the breasts and groin; in classical art this is not associated with the new-born Venus Anadyomene. [16] The painting depicts the world of the imagination rather than being very concerned with realistic depiction.[17]. In Botticelli's tijd was Lorenzo de' Medici de baas in Florence, maar van de precieze relatie tussen hem en zijn familie enerzijds en Botticelli anderzijds is weinig bekend. • (en) Ernst Gombrich, Symbolic Images. For Plato – and so for the members of the Florentine Platonic Academy – Venus had two aspects: she was an earthly goddess who It shows the Roman gods Venus, goddess of love, and Mars, god of war, in an allegory of beauty and valour. Botticelli's famous painting of The Birth of Venus was executed in the middle of the 1480s. This was first suggested by Herbert Horne in his monograph of 1908, the first major modern work on Botticelli, and long followed by most writers, but more recently has been widely doubted, though it is still accepted by some. However, the roses blown along with the two flying figures would be appropriate for Chloris. The Birth of Venus (Italian: Nascita di Venere [ˈnaʃʃita di ˈvɛːnere]) is a painting by the Italian artist Sandro Botticelli, probably made in the mid 1480s. According to the myth, she was born from the foam of the sea, but the painting shows us the moment when she arrives on land. of Venus it might be better to view it from a variety of perspectives. [1] As depictions of subjects from classical mythology on a very large scale they were virtually unprecedented in Western art since classical antiquity, as was the size and prominence of a nude female figure in the Birth. They have been endlessly analysed by art historians, with the main themes being: the emulation of ancient painters and the context of wedding celebrations (generally agreed), the influence of Renaissance Neo-Platonism (somewhat controversial), and the identity of the commissioners (not agreed). They have been endlessly analysed by art historians, with the main themes being: the emulation of ancient painters and the context of wedding celebrations (generally agreed), the influence of Renaissance Neo-Platonism (somewhat controversial), and the identity of the commissioners (not agreed). [46], Rather than choosing one of the many interpretations offered for Botticelli's depiction of the Birth (Arrival?) As with most other gods and goddesses in Roman mythology, the literary concept of Venus is mantled in whole-cloth borrowings from the literary Greek mythology of her equivalent counterpart, Aphrodite. Various interpretations of the painting rely on this origin for its meaning. Botticelli Birth of Venus detail Flora.JPG 336 × 378; 209 KB Botticelli, nascita di venere, dettaglio fiori.jpg 1,032 × 1,236; 863 KB Botticelli, nascita di venere, lumeggiature nella vegetazione.jpg 864 × 1,152; 666 KB As depictions of subjects from classical mythology on a very large scale they were virtually unprecedented in Western art since classical antiquity, as was the size and prominence of a nude female figure in the Birth. Ông thuộc trường phái … Venus by Sandro Botticelli and workshop (Turin)‎ (3 F) Pages in category "Paintings by Sandro Botticelli" This category contains only the following page. ", "What 'Venus', Now At The MFA, Can Teach Us About Renaissance Painter Sandro Botticelli", "Botticelli and the Search for the Divine", University of Birmingham, 18 min introductory lecture. [42] This has not been adopted by Renaissance art historians in general,[43] and it remains problematic, since it depends on the painting being commissioned by the Medici, yet the work is not documented in Medici hands until well into the following century. Examples seem to have been exported to France and Germany, probably influencing Lucas Cranach the Elder among others. So, looking at Venus, the most beautiful of goddesses, might at first raise a physical response in viewers which then lifted their minds towards the godly. This was all apparently applied after the painting was framed. Paintings by Sandro Botticelli; Media in category "Paintings by Sandro Botticelli" The following 13 files are in this category, out of 13 total. Ignoring the size and positioning of the wings and limbs of the flying pair on the left, which bother some other critics, Kenneth Clark calls them: ...perhaps the most beautiful example of ecstatic movement in the whole of painting. They are among the most famous paintings in the world, and icons of the Italian Renaissance; of the two, the Birth is better known than the Primavera. Alternative identifications for the two secondary female figures involve those also found in the Primavera; the nymph held by Zephyr may be Chloris, a flower nymph he married in some versions of her story, and the figure on land may be Flora. It used to be thought that they were both commissioned by the same member of the Medici family, but this is now uncertain. itáliai festő, a korai reneszánsz (quattrocento) idején a firenzei iskola legjelesebb képviselője. [5], At the right a female figure who may be floating slightly above the ground holds out a rich cloak or dress to cover Venus when she reaches the shore, as she is about to do. It was finished with a "cool gray varnish", probably using egg yolk. It depicts the goddess Venus arriving at the shore after her birth, when she had emerged from the sea fully-grown (called Venus Anadyomene and often depicted in art). [11][12], As in the Primavera, the green pigment – used for the wings of Zephyr, Zephyr's companion, and the leaves of the orange trees on the land – has darkened considerably with exposure to light over time, somewhat distorting the intended balance of colours. The sea brings forth Venus just as the Virgin gives birth to the ultimate symbol of love, Christ. It has long been suggested that Botticelli was commissioned to paint the work by the Medici family of Florence, perhaps by Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici (1463–1503) a major patron of Botticelli, under the influence of his cousin Lorenzo de' Medici, "il Magnifico".

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